Corporeal Literacy understanding of the bodily
capacity to read and make sense also changes the notion of thought and
meaning itself, the idea of what it means to do thinking, to make meaning,
to rationalize. (Bleeker, van Kranenburg) "What is important"
write Lakoff and Johnson in their Philosophy in the Flesh, "is not
just that we have bodies and that thought is somehow embodied. What is
important is that the very peculiar nature of our bodies shapes our very
possibilities for conceptualization and categorization." This view
suggests that implementing digital connectivity in an analogue environment
without a design for all the senses, without a concept of corporal literacy,
leads to information overload. In a ubiquitous computing environment the
new intelligence is extelligence, "knowledge and tools that are outside
people's heads" (Stewart and Cohen, 1997) In a ubiquitous computing
environment the user has to be not only textually and visually literate,
both also have corporal literacy, that is an awareness of extelligence
and a working knowledge of all the senses.
In this paper I will sketch converging trends
in current perspectives on art and the body, and society and the hybrid
identities of digital and analogue connectivities. These trends have repercussions
for the way biometrics can evidence security and security issues. An approach
is sketched that favors mixed communities of professional amateurs and
content experts of emergent practice as the most likely form of organization
in the near future (5- 10 years). The terms Digital Territory and bubble
are the introduced from a IPTS study on Digital Territory ( 2006).
A. The Arts and biometrics:
a trend towards emergence /local / proam / opportunistic networking
1 Bio-Art: transformation
processes: modern day alchemy
DNA11.com, a company that creates art from
a sample of your DNA.
"Bio-art has changed greatly in the past ten years. We are viewing
life more as software/code than as hardware. Bio-art is increasingly re-materializing
itself - less on code and more on a "phenomenological confrontation
with wetwork." It is increasinly interested with transformation processes.
Body art is increasing. And it's getting harder to define...hybrid media
definition. He defines a non-genetic, wetwork project he commissioned:
culturing edible, shaped thingies out of frog tissue. It's called "Disembodied
Bio-art, he says, has become an art of transformation of living materials."
Tobie Kerridge : "Focussing on advances in tissue engineering, our
project began with an investigation of implantable technologies: we discovered
that scientists were not only using metals and bioplastics to repair damaged
bone tissue but developing a method of growing actual bone outside the
body to transplant into patients. Our intention was to create an object
that would allow these technologies to be considered in relation to a
familiar experience. Could design be used to construct an open-ended and
provocative statement, in contrast to narratives found in the media which
focused on threatening or fantastic representations of the technology?"
By situating bone tissue engineering within the framework of a relationship
between two people, the Biojewellery project aims to create public dialogue
with emphasis on communication and the accessibility of the scientific
3. RFId implants
"Amal has two RFID implants, one in each hand. His left hand contains
a 3mm by 13mm EM4102 glass RFID tag that was implanted by a cosmetic surgeon
using a scalpel to make a very small cut, into which the implant was placed.
His right hand contains a 2mm by 12mm Philips HITAG 2048 S implant with
crypto-security features and 255 bytes of read/write memory storage space.
It was implanted by a family doctor using an Avid injector kit like the
ones used on pets. He can access his front door, car door, and log into
his computer using his implants, and has written a book called RFID Toys,
which details how to build these and other RFID enabled projects."
Unwanted Result: legislation:
June 12, 2006 (Computerworld) -- "Wisconsin this week will become
one of the first states to ban the forcible implantation of radio frequency
identification (RFID) tags into humans. The ban begins on Wednesday, when
legislation signed on May 30 by Gov. James Doyle goes into effect. The
act dictates that no person may force another to have a microchip implanted
in his body. Violators face fines of $10,000 each day until the chip is
4. Low tech bio labs
House of Natural Fiber, Yogjkarta.
5. Small stuff to carry on you: ad hoc networking
with your friends
Ad hoc networking: locative artists are making stuff: nintendo ds with
linux, asus(brand) wl-hdd, wireless hard disk box as linux computers,
the "network as a content structure."
"Among the longer term challenges for
biometrics is the development of very cheap lightweight micro-sensors
with integrated intelligence and context-awareness obtained by close integration
with the application. In some instances these sensors will be embedded
into the fabric of a service in a manner that will be transparent to the
end user" ( Deliverable)
End users are already doing this for themselves.See
EU Opportunistic Computing Haggle mirrors small collective Hives Network.
From Biovision: " Looking further into
the future, we can foresee a time when biometrics will be part of a 'fit
and forget' culture, with cheap embedded systems forming part of the fabric
of a world where computer processing is transparent and users expect systems
to operate without the need for explicit intervention. In this scenario
of ambient intelligence, the biometric will have a smart sensor and be
significantly smaller than current models (even though the new range of
silicon fingerprint devices approaches the limit of the human interface).
The timescale for this type of environment is likely to be at least at
the far end of the study period (2010), but an early demonstration of
the functionality that could be achieved as part of an intelligent device
fabricated using state of the art technologies would stimulate interest."
Bio Mapping is "a research project which
explores new ways that we as individuals can make use of the information
we can gather about our own bodies. Instead of security technologies that
are designed to control our behaviour, this project envisages new tools
that allows people to selectively share and interpret their own bio data."
Christian Nold investigates individual agency over special constraints.
In Mobile Vulgus his main research question was: "How can we come
to new conceptual understandings of the behaviour of all the protagonists
involved in political demonstrations?"
7. Biofeedback in gaming
Biofeedback system to guarantee gaming thrills
B. Society and biometrics:
a trend towards decentralization, proam, informal networks, opportunistic
"The preservation of personal privacy
and civil liberties is compatible with the need to validate the identity
of the individual crosses the spectrum of social interaction. There is
no inherent reason why both critical security programs and civil applications
of AIT must come at the expense of human dignity. Privacy, respect for
human dignity, respect for democratic procedures, may and should complement
security. Of major concern are interoperability and societal issues."
"Tomorrow's potential troublemakers can be identified even before
they are born, Tony Blair has suggested. Mr Blair said it was possible
to spot the families whose circumstances made it likely their children
would grow up to be a "menace to society". He said teenage mums
and problem families could be forced to take help to head off difficulties.
He said the government had to intervene much earlier to prevent problems
developing when children were older. There could be sanctions for parents
who refused to take advice, he said."
Genetically Modified Food (GMO) has had extensive
PR spin in the last decade, resulting in being perceived was as dangerous
to becoming fashion technology. The same is going on with RFID: in 2007
it will be called Near Field Communication, or M2M, Machine to Machine.
Yet RFIDs the success will lie not in logistics (control, tracking, tracing)
but in the ability of networkcentric applications by designers and users,
such as Thinglink:
" the things that people have made themselves have magical powers.
They have hidden meanings that others can't see." (Mutanen) In that
sense each hour spent on a garment adds value, thoughts and more importantly
long lasting tangible aids for the memory." [Berzowska]
Social RFID - tagging your old things
with the memories of your childhood fantasies -
or Bruce Sterling's notion of sustainability,
ARPHIDS will enable full recycling.
We have very experienced users: they want
agency and they will take it. They no longer hack stuff made by others,
no, they create and make networks, software and hardware.
The coming decade will see the crumbling
of the European nation states as the cognitariat - the digitally literate
middle class- will script its own forms of solidarity (with its familiar
national and international cognitariat) breaking with the 19th century
installed democratic institutions starting with the health, educational
and security systems, causing the start of new class wars between the
disempowered vast majority of non-cognitariat unemployed and the cognitariat
which breaks away from national solidarity.
|C. Future research
agenda following from A and B
"Research agendas have done a good job
of highlighting issues, but lacked a key component: the ability and agreement
to act upon it in a meaningful way. Besides the known techniques, such
as face and finger recognition, new methods are researched upon, such
as DNA, which make use of an individual's physical characteristics, for
authentication of individuals. Multimodal fusion of biometrics will improve
the robustness of the applications. Apart from more fundamental (research)
questions, operational issues such as privacy and data protection become
more important. Other issues of major concern are interoperability, the
transparent operation of biometrics and societal issues, in particular
identity management." (Biovision)
Unless we find new ways of scripting new
forms of solidarities with digital technology, it seems like we can envisage
two roads that both lead to less dialogue, less communication, less innovation,
less business opportunities, less sustainable options. The one focuses
on control in a fundamentally flux wireless environment. The other focuses
on hiding the technological complexity behind ever more simple user friendly
interfaces. In both cases there is no learning by citizens on how to function
within such a system, thereby opening up all kinds of breakdown scenarios.
Focusing on multimodality for more security
might underestimate the ability of people to mess things up (end point
security), the call for revocable keys (Security Taskforce EU), and the
possible democratic threats of the need for a central database.
One future trajectory is to investigate and
instigate the same kind of lowtech approach in biometrics as in ad hoc
|The track of biometrics for open communities
of practice could lead to a range of commercial applications of people getting
insights into their own social behaviour (tracing), emotional moods mapped
to places and spaces (ehealth) and even their own intrinsic internal feelings
and thoughts. Identities would then voluntarily be formed and swapped in
online 3D environments (Second Life) and offline ad hoc networks. Specific
clusters of biometric data could still be used for identification and authentication,
but with this difference that an individual want choose to identify himself
with a cluster of iris, left toe and sonic ear feedback.
Xsens' products "are small, low-cost and highly accurate 3D motion
measurement units." A sensor now costs about 2000 euros, the suit 40k.
This will get cheaper.
from Biovision: "This situational,
dynamic view of identity needs to be borne in mind as we examine the opportunities
offered by biometrics to fix identity in the context of one or more applications.
By fixing identity and using biometrics to confirm that single identity
in daily transactions, we may be changing society in unpredictable ways."
and the Bubble
Maybe the IPTS report on Digital Territories (for which the author was
part of the core team of experts for CTI Patras and Atlantis Research)
is productive in fostering a conceptual model for an Identity Management
situation in which citizens might be able to decide for themselves how
they want to be identified and identifiable. Surely they are the stakeholders
with the most powerful vested interests in their own way of distributing
their set of identities:
if we impose upon the digital
world notions of the real world, in order to essentially better understand
it, we risk losing important advantages that it offers. The lack of physical
boundaries, the all-potent space and the freedom it offers are not assets
to discard easily.
From this point of view, the process resembles the colonisation of a new
world: we have a choice either to accept it as it is, and try to profit
from it, or to impose our known schemes and patterns. Both methods, one
of which has been tested in the real world as well, have their merits
and their disadvantages." (Final report, IPTS Digital Territory)
A Biometric Bubble, a contextual data filter
"A (digital) bubble is a temporarily defined AmI space that can be
used to limit the information coming in or leaving it. A bubble is a metaphor
for visualizing DT. It has an owner (at the centre), radius (that defines
its extend) and duration (it is ephemeral). Its enclosing membrane can
be set to different degrees of opacity. As a direct consequence to its
relationship with DT, the bubble concept clusters together all the interfaces,
formats, rights and agreements etc. needed for the management of personal,
group and public data and informational interactions. Such contextual
activity can be based on privacy, personalisation, priority, location,
membership, ambience, social circumstances, and time. Hence, the bubble
concept (being the
visualisation of a DT) can be used to make filtering and selection of
The above leads to three main research questions:
Is a Biometric Bubble a workable concept?
How can Biometrics
be embraced by the Open source community? (Christian Nold)
Should and if
yes how can recommendations from Security Taskforce be synched with Biosecure?
- The Advisory Board of the EU ICT Security
& Dependability Taskforce http://www.securitytaskforce.org/dmdocs/SecurIST_AB_Recommendations%20Issue_V2_0.pdf
Rob van Kranenburg
[Technorati tags: ArsElectronica2005] September 03, 2005
Posted by D. Weinberger at September 3, 2005 06:32 AM
[ars electronica] Jens Hauser
Legislation in Wisconsin
June 12, 2006 (Computerworld)
House of Natural Fiber
EU Nation States crumble scenario
Tony Blair and troublemakers
Last Updated: Thursday, 31 August 2006, 18:01 GMT 19:01 UK
Howse & Kemp