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15 the future of Culture & Religion
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The General Assembly of the United Nations,
Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Secularization in a Context of Advanced Modernity
Secularization is, in general, on the societal level still an unquestionable fact in Europe. But the advanced modern context is modifying the modalities through which secularization manifests itself.
Religious Freedom and New Religious Movements in Europe
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion are basic human rights and form one of the main pillars of a democratic society. But how free are Europe's citizens to choose and practice their own beliefs? In this article Merudevi Dasi examines the history and implications of policies towards new religious movements (NRMs) in Europe, specifically France. Currently the French government is considering controversial new legislation that many fear will severely curtail the rights of religious minorities. Does this law challenge the European Union's commitment to religious freedom? Will other European countries follow the French model or will France become isolated on this issue?
The Challenge of Multiculturalism after Westernalization
Religion and state in the candidate countries to the European Union
All the candidate countries of Central-Eastern Europe suffered communist governance for over four decades. Religious freedom was curtailed in them all. Certainly there were significant differences between countries and periods. Probably believers in the former Soviet Union suffered the most. The record for Czechoslovakia is definitely worse than that for Poland. Practices varied from open persecution to administrative harassment and discrimination with one common element: there was no religious freedom as such. ">
Muslim girls in Belgium: individual freedom through religion?
Research on Muslim communities in Europe has recently shifted focus from labor and social policy concerns to issues of 'religion' and 'culture'. In particular, there has been a growing interest in the possible emergence of a specifically 'European Islam'. Through examining the religious attitudes and practices of Muslim girls in Belgium, the author investigates the viability of a 'European Islam' and in so doing poses questions about the nature of secularisation, free will and individualisation of religious practice and belief. ">
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